Table of Contents



Title and Writer



Historical Background

Place of Composition

Audience and Purpose



Genre and literary forms




The Minor Prophets


I. Introduction 1:1

II. The first series of messages of judgment and restoration: Hosea's family 1:22:1

A. Signs of coming judgment 1:2-9

B. A promise of restoration 1:102:1

III. The second series of messages of judgment and restoration: marital unfaithfulness 2:23:5

A. Oracles of judgment 2:2-13

1. Judgment on Gomer as a figure of Israel 2:2-7

2. Judgment on Israel 2:8-13

B. Promises of restoration 2:143:5

1. Renewed love and restored marriage 2:14-20

2. Renewed fertility and restored favor 2:21-23

3. The restoration of Hosea's and Yahweh's wives ch. 3

The restoration of Hosea's wife 3:1-3

The restoration of Yahweh's wife 3:4-5

IV. The third series of messages on judgment and restoration: widespread guilt 4:16:3

A. The judgment oracles chs. 45

1. Yahweh's case against Israel ch. 4

Israel's breach of covenant 4:1-3

The guilt of Israel's priests 4:4-10

The guilt of Israel's idolatrous citizens 4:11-14

Judgment on the idolatrous worship 4:15-19

2. The guilt of both Israel and Judah ch. 5

A warning to the priests, people, and royal family of Israel 5:1-7

A warning to Ephraim and Judah 5:8-15

B. The restoration promises 6:1-3

V. The fourth series of messages on judgment and restoration: Israel's ingratitude 6:411:11

A. More messages on coming judgment 6:411:7

1. Israel's ingratitude and rebellion 6:48:14

Accusations involving ingratitude 6:47:16

Lack of loyalty 6:4-11

Internal corruption 7:1-7

Reliance on foreigners 7:8-16

Accusations involving rebellion ch. 8

Making idols 8:1-7

Making treaties 8:8-10

Making altars, palaces, and fortified cities 8:11-14

2. Israel's inevitable judgment 9:111:7

Israel's sorrow 9:1-9

The result: termination of festivals 9:1-6

The cause: opposition to prophets 9:7-9

Israel's humiliation 9:10-17

Diminished fruitfulness 9:10-14

Expulsion from the land 9:15-17

Israel's vulnerability 10:1-8

Judgment on Israel's cultic symbols 10:1-2

Judgment on Israel's political symbol 10:3-8

Israel's coming war 10:9-15

An initial announcement of war 10:9-10

A confirming announcement of war 10:11-15

Israel's rebelliousness 11:1-7

Proof of rebelliousness 11:1-4

Punishment for rebelliousness 11:5-7

B. Another assurance of restoration 11:8-11

VI. The fifth series of messages on judgment and restoration: historical unfaithfulness 11:1214:8

A. Judgment for unfaithfulness 11:1213:16

1. The deceitfulness of Israel 11:1212:14

An introductory accusation and announcement of judgment 11:1212:2

A lesson from Jacob's life 12:3-6

The pride of Israel that needed humbling 12:7-11

Another lesson from Israel's history 12:12-14

2. Israel's impending doom ch. 13

Israel's sin against privilege 13:1-3

The perversity of Israel's idolatry 13:4-8

Israel's misplaced confidence 13:9-11

Israel's stubbornness and its consequences 13:12-14

Covenant unfaithfulness punished 13:15-16

B. Restoration in spite of unfaithfulness 14:1-8

1. An appeal for repentance 14:1-3

2. A promise of restoration 14:4-8

VII. Conclusion 14:9