Table of Contents



Title and Writer


Historical Background

Purpose and Themes

Canonicity and Unity






I. Introduction 1:1-6

II. The eight night visions and four messages 1:76:8

A. The horseman among the myrtle trees 1:7-17

1. The vision proper 1:7-15

2. The oracle about God's jealousy for Israel 1:16-17

B. The four horns and the four smiths 1:18-21

C. The surveyor ch. 2

1. The vision itself 2:1-5

2. The oracle about enemy destruction and Israelite blessing 2:6-13

The destruction of oppressing enemies 2:6-9

Yahweh's ultimate blessing of Israel 2:10-13

D. The cleansing and restoration of Joshua ch. 3

1. The symbolic act 3:1-5

2. The accompanying promises 3:6-10

E. The gold lampstand and the two olive trees ch. 4

1. The vision 4:1-5

2. Two oracles concerning Zerubbabel 4:6-10

The first oracle 4:6-7

The second oracle 4:8-10

3. The interpretation of the vision 4:11-14

F. The flying scroll 5:1-4

G. The woman in the basket 5:5-11

H. The four chariots 6:1-8

III. The symbolic crowning of Joshua 6:9-15

IV. Messages concerning hypocritical fasting chs. 78

A. The question from the delegation from Bethel 7:1-3

B. The Lord's rebuke 7:4-7

C. The command to repent 7:8-14

D. Israel's restoration to God's favor 8:1-17

E. Kingdom joy and Jewish favor 8:18-23

V. Oracles about the Messiah and Israel's future chs. 914

A. The burden concerning the nations: the advent and rejection of Messiah chs. 911

1. The coming of the true king ch. 9

The destruction of nations and the preservation of Zion 9:1-8

The advent of Zion's King 9:9-10

The deliverance and blessing of Zion's people 9:11-17

2. The restoration of the true people ch. 10

3. The rejection of the true king ch. 11

The announcement of doom 11:1-3

The fate of the Good Shepherd 11:4-14

The appearance of the bad shepherd 11:15-17

B. The burden concerning Israel: the advent and acceptance of Messiah chs. 1214

1. The repentance of Judah ch. 12

Israel's deliverance 12:1-9

Israel's national conversion 12:10-14

2. The restoration of Judah ch. 13

Israel's cleansing 13:1-6

The smiting of the Shepherd and the scattering of the sheep 13:7-9

3. The reign of Messiah ch. 14

The final deliverance of Israel and the return of Messiah 14:1-8

The security of Israel 14:9-11

The destruction of Israel's enemies 14:12-15

The worship of the sovereign King 14:16-21